Essential idea:

Motion may be described and analysed by the use of graphs and equations.

Nature of science:

Observations: The ideas of motion are fundamental to many areas of physics, providing a link to the consideration of forces and their implication. The kinematic equations for uniform acceleration were developed through careful observations of the natural world.

Understandings:

- Distance and displacement Ladybug motion 2D
- Speed and velocity The maze game
- Acceleration The moving man, Kinematics and the NFL
- Graphs describing motion Practice problems
- Equations of motion for uniform acceleration Hammer and feather drop on moon (Apollo 15)
- Projectile motion Projectile motion, Pumpkin catapult, Projectile motion and the NFL
- Fluid resistance and terminal speed Elephant and feather fall Terminal speed details

Applications and skills

- Determining instantaneous and average values for velocity, speed and acceleration
- Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform acceleration
- Sketching and interpreting motion graphs
- Determining the acceleration of free-fall experimentally
- Analysing projectile motion, including the resolution of vertical and horizontal components of acceleration, velocity and displacement
- Qualitatively describing the effect of fluid resistance on falling objects or projectiles, including reaching terminal speed

Guidance

- Calculations will be restricted to those neglecting air resistance
- Projectile motion will only involve problems using a constant value of g close to the surface of the Earth
- The equation of the path of a projectile will not be required

Data Booklet reference

*v = u + at**s = ut + (1/2)at*^{2}*v*^{2}= u^{2}+ 2as*s = (1/2) (v + u) / t*- The
*v*represents the*final velocity*. The*u*represents the*initial velocity*. The*t*represents the elapsed*time*. The*a*represents the*constant acceleration*. The*s*represents the*displacement*. Note that many textbooks use the symbol*"Δx"*for*s*and*v*for_{0}*u*.

International-mindedness

- International cooperation is needed for tracking shipping, land-based transport, aircraft and objects in space.

Theory of knowledge

- The independence of horizontal and vertical motion in projectile motion seems to be counter-intuitive. How do scientists work around their intuitions? How do scientists make use of their intuitions?

Utilization

- Diving, parachuting and similar activities where fluid resistance affects motion
- The accurate use of ballistics requires careful analysis
- Biomechanics (see
*Sports, exercise and health science SL*sub-topic*4.3*) - Quadratic functions (see
*Mathematics HL*sub-topic*2.6*;*Mathematics SL*sub-topic*2.4*;*Mathematical studies SL*sub-topic*6.3*) - The kinematic equations are treated in calculus form in
*Mathematics HL*sub-topic*6.6*and*Mathematics SL*sub-topic*6.6*

Aims

**Aim 2:**much of the development of classical physics has been built on the advances in kinematics**Aim 6:**experiments, including use of data logging, could include (but are not limited to): determination of*g*, estimating speed using travel timetables, analysing projectile motion, and investigating motion through a fluid**Aim 7:**technology has allowed for more accurate and precise measurements of motion, including video analysis of real-life projectiles and modelling/simulations of terminal velocity