IB Physics

# Topic 9: Wave phenomena

## 9.1 Simple harmonic motion

Essential idea:

The solution of the harmonic oscillator can be framed around the variation of kinetic and potential energy in the system.

Nature of science:

Insights: The equation for simple harmonic motion (SHM) can be solved analytically and numerically. Physicists use such solutions to help them to visualize the behavior of the oscillator. The use of the equations is very powerful as any oscillation can be described in terms of a combination of harmonic oscillators. Numerical modelling of oscillators is important in the design of electrical circuits. (1.11)

Understandings:

• The defining equation of SHM
• Energy changes

Applications and skills

• Solving problems involving acceleration, velocity and displacement during simple harmonic motion, both graphically and algebraically
• Describing the interchange of kinetic and potential energy during simple harmonic motion
• Solving problems involving energy transfer during simple harmonic motion, both graphically and algebraically

Guidance

• Contexts for this sub-topic include the simple pendulum and a mass-spring system

Data Booklet reference

• ω = 2π/T
• a = -ω2x
• x = x0 sin ωt; x = x0 cos ωt
• v = ωx0 cos ωt; v = -ωx0 sin ωt
• v = ±ω SQRT(x02 - x2)
• EK = 1/2 mω2(x02 - x2)
• ET = 1/2 mω2 x02
• pendulum: T = 2π SQRT(l/g)
• mass-spring:T = 2π SQRT(m/k)

International-mindedness

Theory of knowledge

Utilization

Aims

• Aim 1:
• Aim 2:

## 9.2 – Single-slit-diffraction

Essential idea:

Single-slit diffraction occurs when a wave is incident upon a slit of approximately the same size as the wavelength.

Nature of science:

Development of theories: When light passes through an aperture the summation of all parts of the wave leads to an intensity pattern that is far removed from the geometrical shadow that simple theory predicts. (1.9)

Understandings:

• The nature of single-slit diffraction

Applications and skills

• Describing the effect of slit width on the diffraction pattern
• Determining the position of first interference minimum
• Qualitatively describing single-slit diffraction patterns produced from white light and from a range of monochromatic light frequencies

Guidance

• Only rectangular slits need to be considered
• Physics sub-topic 4.4) >
• Students will be expected to be aware of the approximate ratios of successive intensity maxima for single-slit interference patterns
• Calculations will be limited to a determination of the position of the first minimum for single-slit interference patterns using the approximation equation

Data Booklet reference

• Θ = λ/b

International-mindedness

Theory of knowledge

Utilization

Aims

• Aim 1:
• Aim 2:

## 9.3 – Interference

Essential idea:

Nature of science:

Understandings:

Applications and skills

Guidance

Data Booklet reference

• s = vt
• There is a "Δx" not for every distance s.

International-mindedness

Theory of knowledge

Utilization

Aims

• Aim 1:
• Aim 2:

## 9.4 – Resolution

Essential idea:

Nature of science:

Understandings:

Applications and skills

Guidance

Data Booklet reference

• s = vt
• There is a "Δx" not for every distance s.

International-mindedness

Theory of knowledge

Utilization

Aims

• Aim 1:
• Aim 2:

## 9.5 – Doppler effect

Essential idea:

Nature of science:

Understandings:

Applications and skills

Guidance

Data Booklet reference

• s = vt
• There is a "Δx" not for every distance s.

International-mindedness

Theory of knowledge

Utilization

Aims

• Aim 1:
• Aim 2:
.
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